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Abstract: Amec Foster Wheeler and Emerging Compounds Treatment Technologies, Inc. tested pilot-scale ex situ treatment technologies for treatment of poly- and perfluorinated alkyl substances (PFAS) in groundwater. The pilot test compared ion exchange resin to granular activated carbon (GAC) and evaluated in-place regeneration of the resin to restore PFAS removal capacity. During the pilot test, both resin and GAC removed perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) below U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) health advisories (HAs) of 0.070 micrograms per liter (­Łťçg/L) combined. Compared at a common empty bed contact time (EBCT) of five minutes, the resin treated over eight times as many bed volumes (BVs) of groundwater as GAC before PFOS exceeded the USEPA HA and six times as many BVs for PFOA. On a mass-to-mass basis, resin removed over four times as much total PFAS per gram as GAC before breakthrough was observed at the USEPA HA. A solution of organic solvent and brine was used to regenerate the resin in the lead vessel, which had treated water up to the point of PFOS and PFOA breakthrough exceeding the USEPA HAs. The pilot test demonstrated successful in-place regeneration of the resin to near-virgin conditions. The regenerated resin was then used to treat the contaminated groundwater up to the same breakthrough point. Compared to the virgin resin loading cycles, PFAS removal results for the regenerated resin were consistent with virgin resin