Removal of contaminants from any body of water may be required for a variety of reasons, including purification of drinking water, remediation of industrial contamination, and removal of naturally occurring contaminants. Ecological concerns often drive surface water treatment activities, as polluters are required to assess risk to flora, fauna, and humans. Internationally, the Australian and New Zealand Guidelines for Fresh and Marine Water Quality have set draft guideline values for the 99% species protection scenario of 0.00023 µg/L PFOS and 19 µg/L PFOA. Under the PFAS Action Plan, the US EPA is investigating the development of Clean Water Act Section 304(a) for use in determining if a waterbody requires PFAS cleanup, is proposing to regulate both PFOA and PFOS under the SDWA, and has initiated the process to designate PFOA and PFOS as CERCLA hazardous substances. Furthermore, the US EPA currently has authority under CERCLA, SDWA, and RCRA to require persons who have caused or contributed to PFAS contamination to take actions where there may be an imminent and substantial endangerment to public health.